The old dream of flying like the birds began to be realized in the late eighteenth century, thanks to the balloon of the Montgolfier brothers. Just over a century later, the man managed to fly a plane. From the time you go remote, myths and legends speak of men who flew like birds.
The first flight experiment real, decisive for the development of air navigation, was the brothers Jacques and Joseph Montgolfier in June 1783. His ship was a huge balloon with passengers who reached the height of 2,000 m. The principle of the invention was simple: fire under a balloon light material. c balloon is inflated and rose, because the hot air inside was lighter than the surrounding air. The news of the Montgolfier encouraged other attempts. On November 21 1783 a young nobleman of Pilatre Rozier was the first passenger in Paris from the air in a balloon that had a burner. A few days later, the physicist Jacques-Alexandre Charles repeated the experiment with a more technically advanced, which i used hydrogen instead of hot air: he was born on gas balloon. The dirigible As the balloon did not allow a management of the world, began to project a dirigible craft, driven by propellers. This was performed after he invented the gasoline engine, much more powerful and lighter than the vapor. The first dirigible flight took a significant place on Lake Constance (Germany) in June 1900. Its inventor was the German Count von Zeppelin Fcrdinand. Since then, the airship had spread and was quite used for military purposes in the First World War. Became a symbol of technical progress, but was soon abandoned because of the tragedies caused by the use of hydrogen, a flammable gas. Flying machines The study of the aerodynamics of the airplane and the idea had many predecessors in France and England in the first half of the nineteenth century. Attempted to build a rigid-wing vehicle, driven by a propeller engine light, whose flight is based on four different forces. The combination of these forces could overcome those pushing it towards the ground.
The first airplane was efficient work of the American brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright. Having long studied the failures of their predecessors, December 17, 1903 managed to fly for the first time ever, a machine driven by its own strength and able to travel without losing speed. It was a biplane with wings of an opening of 12.5 m and two drivers (one above and one in the queue), which had a gasoline engine of 70 kg and 12 horsepower. Since then the aircraft had a rapid development
throughout the world. On July 25, 1909 the French invented by Louis Blériot’s wing, succeeded in flying across the English Channel and in 1927, Captain Charles Lindberg (USA). in his monoplane Spirit of St. Louis made crossing the Atlantic in a solo flight that lasted 33 hours.
Jets and rockets
Until the end of World War II, the mechanical flight was substantially unchanged from that in 1903, the Wright brothers made the first airplane to fly in the fifty years following major improvements were made to the new aircraft. However, the engines and the flight were the same as the first prototype. Only the principle of propulsion by reaction with both engines and jet propulsion rocket engine, introduced a fundamental change. The principle that there is a bomb on a moving reaction was known since antiquity: if you leave air, steam or other gas contained in a container, a hole, the gust of air expelled gives the object momentum (a good example is a balloon that suddenly deflates). We had to wait until the technology progressed pond oxidant fuel in many areas before they can apply this law of physics on the fly. In order for an engine based on this kind of momentum was efficient, it was necessary to construct a building with materials resistant to high speeds and temperatures.
The first to patent a jet engine was the French engineer René Lorin, Airplanes in 1911 driven by such engines were built shortly before World War II in Germany, Italy and England. The most important was produced in 1941 by the English aviator Frank Whittle, who had planned a decade earlier. The aircraft did not need propellers Whittle because, on the engine pistons and cylinders were replaced by a combustion chamber and a turbine, with great violence to expel gas from the back of the tube reactor, the plane was moving. With this system, implemented prior to the war planes after the first English attempt at the flight line, can reach speeds previously unimaginable.
The idea of a vertical takeoff aircraft is old, and many inventors designed and tested such machines in the course of history. However. the first who managed to build a helicopter efidente. ie. an aircraft driven by a rotor (propeller revolutions making pallet horizontal from the ground), were the technicians of the German aeronautical industry Focke, 1940. As their work is not known until the end of the Second War, the invention of the helicopter is generally attributed to the Soviet engineer Igor Sikorsky. who built his prototype, the XR-4 for the U.S. Army in 1941. Because it is able to stand motionless in the air and requires minimal space for takeoff and landing, the helicopter is extremely useful for many practical purposes.